In the mid-20th century in the Nordic countries (mainly Scandinavian) drew attention to the excellent coupling properties of studded tires. Since these tires have become in the Scandinavian countries a kind of winter standard.
The current main problem studded tires is that the spikes should combine a number of properties that contradict each other: should not wear out quickly, otherwise the tire will lose their "ice" quality, and should not wear out too slowly, because the tread is also erased, says Popular mechanics. If the spike is not enough to act on the protector, he will not be able to pierce the ice. If would protrude from the tread too heavily, will increase the probability of its loss.
To spike satisfies all these contradictory requirements, it must have a composite structure: body (body) and pin (hard wear resistant insert). Absolutely most of the buildings - obnovleniya, similar in shape to the nail.
The shape of the spines is square, rectangular, diamond-shaped, oval, trapezoidal. Depending on the form of studs, you can affect the key characteristics of the vehicle braking, handling, acceleration.
For studded tires passenger cars are used more lightweight aluminium chassis studs that are pressed made by a method of sintering of the powder insert tungsten carbide. There have been attempts to make housing studs made of plastic, but for various reasons (mainly because of the low strength) of them refused.